Tag Archives: analysis

Local PayPal Phishing – and why we need a CERT

This just came in the mail: (twice – at two different mailboxes – I must be a high value target for these guys)

A classic phishing email, with the only exception that it seems highly targeted at the Israeli market! (yeah – I know, I sound a little excited, but this is the first one I ever got…). Obviously, I am not the new owner of a BROWN denim jeans (eeewww!), so as I am very interested in who may want my PayPal details, a bit of digging brought this up:

 

  1. The phishing site (the one led to by the obvious “CANCEL TRANSACTION” link) is hosted on al3abnt.com.
  2. al3abnt.com is obviously not related to PayPal, and in a very unusual turn of events it is actually registered to a person, or at least something that may lead closer to a person than most phishing sites (that use whois anonymizing).
  3. The Whois registration (see below) also leads to a website on anasblog.me. This seems a personal blog from a local village called Salfit in Israel (I knew it reminded me of something… been around there a couple of times :-)).
  4.  

  5. The blog (see screenshot below) seems pretty anti-Israeli (note the “we are with the third intifada” button on the top-left corner) – thus explaining the interest in local Israeli PayPal accounts.
  6. Obviously – there’s no-one to send the notification to… no CERT would handle this, and the police is almost comical in the way they reacted to calls of this nature…

I’m guessing that a CERT would have done the following:

  1. Publish a warning notification on the offending site, and the email template.
  2. Coordinate with ISP the takedown of the offending site and law-enforcement work to apprehend the scammer (A phone number is listed on the whois information – feel free to try it out 🙂 ).

Be safe out there!

The curious case of Dropbox security

The Dropbox logoAfter the disclosure of the host_id authentication issues that plagued the popular Dropbox service last week, a new issue came up with the fact that Dropbox can detect whether the files you are trying to upload to their cloud already exist there, and “save you the bandwidth” of uploading it if they already have a copy in hand.

So – the Dropbox client probably checks for the hash of the file being uploaded against a list of hashes of existing files that are already stored on the cloud. It may also be that the files stored online are encrypted. So… what’s the big deal?

One has to remember that when using a service such as Dropbox (and I’m an avid user myself), you clearly do not have full control over the material you upload, and the online encryption is only a fraction of the protection you may be seeking. There is no key management visible to the user. There is no way that each client you use has its own key, nor they share keys, and if they do, Dropbox is managing your keys. This also gives them the ability to decrypt your data at any given time. Subsequently, it also gives them the ability to provide you with the file of another user if you tried to upload it yourself (hence saving you the bandwidth) – for example, when you may want to access it from a client which does not have the synched copy of your account (or through the web interface). They just decrypt the other user’s file, and serve it back to you. After all – you have the same one back on your home/work/whatever PC (remember that you showed “proof” by providing the hash before).

Which brings us back to reality – what are we really exposed to here in terms of risk?

  1. Dropbox has the ability to access the contents of my files.
  2. If I can come up with a hash of a file that I know someone else has, and that file may be confidential in some way, I can potentially claim to upload the same file, and then download the real one (as I don’t really have the original) from another client or through the web interface.

Clearly, the media attention to point 1 is important – but still not really interesting as people should have had a clue when they send their files to the “cloud”.

However, point 2 makes a more interesting argument… It would be interesting to see when the first “hack” will come along which will start “uploading” files (by hacking the client protocol – hint: start here, here, and here) just based on hashes, and then downloading them as if from another client to see what you get (if they were “cached” already on the Dropbox cloud). Now that would be an interesting little experiment…

Happy hacking!

SCADA, control systems and security – not necessarily enemies

Insights from the NISA International SCADA Security Forum conference (NISA stands for National Information Security Authority, which is a division of the Israeli Security Agency).

We all know that SCADA has been considered a security nightmare for a long time. Admittedly, I only have a short experience with such systems and control systems in general (just short of two years), but the topic is fascinating. The main challenges in securing control systems from my point of view is the ability to “connect” with the domain experts and understand the systems and processes properly.
Unfortunately, we, as a security community are far from it (at least based on what I have seen in the past couple of days in the conference). The rush to force traditional IT solutions and ways of thinking onto control systems just do not work. From “learning” firewalls that monitor the industrial control protocols, to systems that are designed to ADD complexity to the threat modeling by layering network and Internet related threats to SIEM mechanisms and add the “scada” data to it. These are all solutions that are Bound to fail as they do not understand the actual needs and operational state of mind of control systems engineering.

If we take a new and unbiased look at what kind of data and processes are involved in such systems, we (as in the security community) would be thrilled to learn that there are a lot of untapped intelligence resources that would substantially help us in building a more appropriate and relevant detection and alerting mechanisms. Trying to force an IT solution on these would be an exercise in fitting a square peg into a round hole, and as exciting as that may be we all know what would be the outcome of it.

To sum things up – just as you would not pretend to know the environment of a financial or a commercial customer when approaching the task of securing it, control systems pose an ever more distinct challenge. Open up, keep the critical thinking and most of all LISTEN. You’ll find out that long before you can start pushing the “cyber” agenda, you have much to work with just with the basic data and processes already at hand, and that there is a lot of value that a security practitioner can bring to such an organization.

P.S. I’m specifically refraining from addressing any product or vendor as I do not think it’s fair to “out” them (however big or small they may be) as these have obviously been rushed to the market in an attempt to get an initial foothold in the industry. Nevertheless, I do encourage such vendors to do some more homework, and work WITH the industry rather than just try to capitalize on their existing expertise in IT and “cyber”.

Defense through Offense, and how APT fits there

I’m guessing that having “APT” in anything that goes outside for public consumption these days is mandatory, but this post actually has a good reason to do so. If you look back just one post in the past, we were discussing the new initiative to define “Penetration Testing”. The post, and the proposed standard itself really take a good look at what organizations need, and how to address such needs from a practical point of view, rather than from a compliance or a “check-box ticking” perspective.

For me this is one of the things that the security industry has done a great disservice to. It is exactly why companies are announcing that for every time they get breached, it was an advanced attack. An attack so sophisticated, that managed to stay persistent in their network and exfiltrate lots of sensitive information, that no reasonable control could have prevented or detected it. The all dreaded “APT”.

However, if you take a look at how organizations prepare themselves for such attacks you may find yourself staring at a blank page. Since regulatory compliance dictates a very basic “box checking” methodology for a very narrow and specific aspect of information security, and the product vendors on the other hand provide solutions that are “compliance oriented”, organizations are left with a very weak defense mechanisms. This is without even mentioning the biggest security gap in most organizations – the employees.

The lack of self-testing, of a real-world simulation of what an attack would look like, and how the organization would cope with, hinders most organizations from putting reasonable defenses in place. The lack of proper training, awareness campaigns, and exercises that stress out the human factor as well are leading us to a situation where even simple attacks that utilize off-the-shelf (and even FREE) attack tools, manage to go through an organizations control mechanisms with aggravating ease.

I’m looking back at what the penetration testing execution standard defines for its basic testing methodology, and I can clearly see how every element of the recent “APT” attacks would have been simulated, and probably in a more rigorous scenario. Such a test would have clearly left the tested organization with a roadmap that would bring it to a much higher security standard. And that’s the power of testing – of understanding the adversary’s techniques and strategies, and running exercises that reflect them in order to identify security gaps and close them as efficiently as possible. And yes – that also (and perhaps mainly) applies to human related processes and policies rather than just to technology.

So to sum things up – you may be compliant, but do not think for a moment that this compliance has anything to do with the security of your information. Until regulatory compliance does not mandate proper security testing in order to protect the data in question, such compliance is only going to hinder your “security vision”. Get proper testing, set up an internal team that would be responsible for understanding the threat communities you are dealing with (or hire an external one ), and make sure you set yourself a goal to have an unbiased understanding of what your gaps are and how well you can face a standard attack (yes – the same standard attack that you are going to call an “APT” if it would hit you unprepared).

Information Security Intelligence Report for 2010 and Predictions for 2011

Looking back at 2010 shows a widening gap between cybercrime and law enforcement capabilities, in conjunction to nations that have started the cyber-race to develop defensive and offensive capabilities. Most of the attacks analyzed in 2010 depict organizations that fall behind in their defensive strategies as attackers take advantage of a hybrid approach that merges technical merits alongside human weaknesses to cash-out on their attacks.

Cybercrime widens the gap between attack capability and defense mechanisms. Analyzing several of the major attacks of 2010, Security Art notes that organizations were attacked in two key ways. Firstly, through technical exploits such as Aurora, Mariposa, ZeuS, and SpyEye. Secondly, by attacks that bypassed traditional protection methods, and gained access to targets through human-weakness areas such as social media. While businesses focused on defending themselves using security mechanisms such as anti- virus software and perimeter defenses, attackers jumped over these defenses, and proceeded to flood the market with a high volume of malware that now poses a serious threat to security providers in terms of detection rates and response time. However, law enforcement agencies have focused mainly on menial cybercriminals, and have not successfully reduced the impact of online criminal activities. On a national level, we see nations have embarked upon the race to develop defensive and offensive cyber capabilities.

Cyberwar arms race sends nations to shopping frenzy. As CyberWar gained merit (and criticism) during 2010, with the movie-material Stuxnet incident being the poster-boy for news outlets that published every spin-off, speculation, and plain old gossip, the international scene had its own race for the latest and greatest defense mechanisms. The implications of Aurora and Stuxnet made most countries feel their lack of a critical infrastructure defense and the capability to deliver a similar cyber-blow, and many went shopping for weapons. Security Art witnessed the strategic build up of capabilities in some countries, and a more hurried shopping spree (that usually led to amassment of CyberCrime provided tools) in others. This, and the delayed response of organizations such as the UN, the EU, and NATO, left the scene looking more like the Wild West than Silicon Valley.

Expanding digital domain and improved understanding of security will reign in 2011. Our prediction for 2011, drawn from the criminal, political and diplomatic sides of cybercrime that dominated 2010, is that more focus is going to be given to approaching security from a strategic standpoint. Rather than buying “best of breed” products and ticking off compliance sheets, we predict that organizations and countries will apply a more sensible executive-level understanding of what information security means to them. In the expanding personal digital domain (smartphone, tablets, and suchlike), and the continued digitization of all organizational information (from scanned materials to VOIP telephony), security must be applied to more layers than ever before. Countries and organizations will have to adopt additional skill-sets and look for solutions in areas they have not dealt with before.

Please go to http://www.security-art.com/download-report to download the full report, or email [email protected] for additional information.