Category Archives: Guest post

Guest post: Why you need patch management

Today we have another guest post from our friends at GFI – this time on patch management (which unfortunately is one of the reasons that so many pentests are so easy to succeed in…)

Every organization uses several types of software such as operating systems, servers, clients and many other third party applications. Every software package is a complicated piece of engineering. Programs are created from hundreds of thousands to millions of lines of code and each line of code is further converted by the compiler into many low level instructions that a computer needs to execute. With all this complexity, it is not surprising that issues will arise affecting the smooth running of the system on which the software is installed.

Be it a coding mishap, a combination of inputs that the developer didn’t foresee, or even an unexpected interaction between the billions of low level instructions, an application can have a vulnerability that would allow someone to maliciously exploit in order to perform some undesired action.

Malicious hackers are constantly looking for these software deficiencies both for fame and profit. A zero-day vulnerability in a popular application may be sold for hundreds of thousands of dollars on the black market. Such vulnerabilities could be used to infect a large number of computers before vendors get a chance to detect and address the problem.

At the other end of the spectrum, security researchers are in a daily race with malicious hackers to find vulnerabilities themselves. When they do come across these vulnerabilities, vendors are notified and given time to fix the issue before making their findings public.

How does all this affect your need for patch management?

Malware like the Code Red worm and Sasser exploited software vulnerabilities to deliver their malicious payload, therefore failing to patch software would leave your systems open to such attacks. Payloads can be anything from BotNet software which will waste bandwidth and computer resources to send spam, to spyware software designed to steal credentials, financial details and intellectual property.

While security researchers play an important role in discovering vulnerabilities, disclosing them to the public indirectly increases the risk for organizations because even though a patch will be available, not all organizations are organized and address the problem immediately.

Hackers are aware that many IT admins take their time to patch their systems, sometimes waiting months to deploy a released patch. Code Red is a perfect example. While Code Red exploited a vulnerability for which a patch had been available for over a month, countless systems were compromised by the malware because many had not yet deployed the critical patch.

One also needs to take a holistic approach to patch management.  As in all security cases, it is the weakest link in the system that is exploited. An attacker does not need to compromise all your systems’ vulnerabilities, they only need to compromise one vulnerability to get access to your systems. That is why selective patch management is not recommended. While operating system patch management is essential and easiest to perform, that alone will not protect you against vulnerabilities in third-party products such as a PDF file exploiting a vulnerability in a PDF reader.

It is obviously preferable to do operating system patch management exclusively rather than having no patch management at all, but the more applications you keep up to date the more effective your security will be.

This guest post was provided by Emmanuel Carabott on behalf of GFI Software Ltd. GFI is a leading software developer that provides a single source for network administrators to address their network security, content security and messaging needs.

Find out more about what should be included in your patch management.

7 Steps to consider when running a Vulnerability Assessment

Today I’m proud to give this stage to some friends from GFI (have some good friends from the former Sunbelt guys that were acquired by GFI last year). Vanessa is our guest blogger, and she’s got a great post on how to run a more effective Vulnerability Assessment process in your organization.


Do you know how your server measures up to potential threats? If you haven’t performed a vulnerability assessment on your servers yet, you may not be aware of issues that may leave you exposed to hackers and web-based attacks. A vulnerability assessment is the process of inventorying systems to check for possible security problems, and is an important part of system management and administration.

Vulnerabilities are weaknesses within a server or network that can be exploited in order to gain unauthorized access to a system, usually with the intention of performing malicious activities. The most common way to address many software-related vulnerabilities is through patches, which will usually be provided by the software manufacturer to correct security weaknesses or other bugs within an program. However, there may be times when a patch is not available to address a possible security hole, and not all vulnerabilities are software-related for which a patch would be offered. This is where the concept of vulnerability assessment comes into play. Minimizing the attack surface and the effect that a potential hacking attempt could have on your system is a proactive way of effectively managing a server network.

While there is no 100% way to protect your servers against vulnerabilities, in performing a vulnerability assessment there are some steps you can take to minimize your risk:

  1. Close unused ports
    Ideally, your server network setup should include at least a network firewall and a server-level firewall to block undesired traffic. Undesired traffic would include traffic to ports that are unused or that correspond with services that shouldn’t be publicly-available. These ports should be blocked in your firewall(s).
  2. Don’t over-share
    If servers on your network are set up to share files with others, or to access network shares (such as file servers and other resources), make sure that those shares are configured to only allow access as appropriate. Hosts that don’t participate in sharing resources should have that capability turned off completely.
  3. Stop unnecessary service
    The more services you have on your server, especially those that listen on network ports, the more avenues a hacker has to get into your system. This is especially true if you have services running that aren’t being monitored or used, and therefore are unmaintained. Stop services that are not in use or necessary, and restrict access to others that are not intended for public access.
  4. Remove unnecessary applications
    Many operating systems come with a wide set of programs that may not be necessary for normal server operations. Find out what software is installed on your system, and then determine which of those applications are not necessary and remove them.
  5. Change your passwords
    Using default vendor passwords is more common than you may think – but since those passwords are usually publicly-known, they are often the first ones used during hacking attempts. Secure passwords should always be used in favor of the vendor defaults, and industry experts recommend changing them every 30-60 days.
  6. Do some research
    When software or new applications are installed, users often neglect to take the time required to review their settings to ensure that everything is up to par with modern security standards. Take some time to research what you are installing and any security implications that it may have, including what features may be enabled that could introduce security problems, and what settings need to be adjusted.
  7. Encrypt when possible
    Many services and network hardware have the capability of encrypting traffic, which decreases the likelihood of information being “sniffed” out of your network. When transmitting sensitive data, such as passwords, always use an encrypted connection.

Regular vulnerability assessment is a vital part of maintaining system security. Not only will it help diminish the success or possible effects of malicious activity against your servers, but it’s also a requirement for many compliance standards such as PCI DSS, HIPAA, SOX, GLB/GLBA, among others.

This guest post was provided by Vanessa Vasile on behalf of GFI Software Ltd. GFI is a leading software developer that provides a single source for network administrators to address their network security, content security and messaging needs. More information on vulnerability assessment

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